What is mitosis? Steps of Mitosis and Importance

What is Mitosis? mitosis definition is the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. It is a nuclear division plus cytokinesis and produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is often included in discussions of mitosis, but interphase is technically not part of the mitotic process, but rather encompasses …

Endoplasmic Reticulum : Basics and Functions

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a strikingly complex structure within the cell and has three morphologically distinct regions: Sheets of the nuclear envelope A network of interconnected peripheral ER tubules Peripheral ER sheets All three regions exist within the continuous membrane bilayer and correlate with specialized ER functions. They can be easily detected by fluorescence microscopy. Structure of rEndoplasmic Reticulum …

Nucleic Acid Structures: Basic structures of Nucleosides, Nucleotides

In Nucleic acid structures, there are two types of nucleic acid. They are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are polymers of nucleotides linked in a chain through phosphodiester bonds. In biological systems, they serve as information-carrying molecules or, in the case of some RNA molecules, catalysts. This brief review will focus on aspects of the structure of particular importance in …

Metabolism of Lipids in Humans (Short Guide)

The major aspects of the metabolism of lipids are involved with Fatty Acid Oxidation to produce energy or the synthesis of lipids which is called Lipogenesis. Lipid metabolism is closely connected to the metabolism of carbohydrates which may be converted to fats. This can be seen in the diagram on the left. The metabolism of both is upset by diabetes …

Ramachandran Plot : Polypeptide chain conformation

Ramachandran plot is a plot of the torsional angles – phi (φ)and psi (ψ) – of the residues (amino acids) contained in a peptide. In sequence order, φ is the N(i-1),C(i),Ca(i),N(i) torsion angle and ψ is the C(i),Ca(i),N(i),C(i+1) torsion angle. The plot was developed in 1963 by G. N. Ramachandran,  by plotting the φ values on the x-axis and the …

What is Passive Transport, Types and its Function

Passive transport occurs when no energy is required to move a substance, such as water or carbon dioxide, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the concentration is equal, sometimes across a membrane. The high-to-low concentration gradient is the driving force for passive transport because it fulfills a fundamental law of nature: Things tend …