What are the Chromatin Structure and Function

What are the Chromatin Structure and Function

Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell. The primary functions of chromatin are: to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis and prevent DNA damage, and to control gene expression and DNA replication. The primary ...

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Van der Waals Forces : Special Intermolecular forces

Van der Waals Forces : Special Intermolecular forces

Van der Waals forces’ is a general term used to define the attraction of intermolecular forces between molecules. There are two kinds of Van der Waals forces : weak London Dispersion Forces and stronger dipole-dipole forces. Introduction: The chance that an electron of an atom is in a certain area in the electron cloud at a specific time is called ...

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What is Buffer and What are the Importance in Biological system?

What are the Buffers? What are the Importance?

Buffers are the mixture of weak acids and their salts of strong bases (or) the mixture of weak bases and their salts of strong acids. Buffers help to maintain a normal pH of the biological systems. When acid (or) alkali is added the pH of the solution changes in the absence of buffers. How buffers act: Buffers act as “Shock ...

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Active transport: Cell Membrane Mechanism

Active transport: Cellular Membrane Mechanism

Active transport is a cellular mechanism by which molecules cross the cell membrane against a concentration gradient, that is, from an area of ​​low concentration to high concentration other with the consequent energy. Typical examples are the sodium-potassium pump, the pump simply calcium or glucose transport. (Check in Biochemistry Dictionary) In most cases the active transport is carried out at ...

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Enzyme Regulation and its Types

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Many of the biochemical reactions in a living cell can go both ways. For example, mammalian cells both catabolize and synthesize glucose. The rates at which these reactions occur must be regulated; otherwise, energy is wasted by what is called a futile cycle carrying out opposing reactions at high rates with no net substrate flow in either direction. Remember that ...

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Allosteric Enzymes are Special Modulators. Why?

Allosteric Enzymes are Special Modulators. Why?

A Modulator is a metabolite which, when bound to the allosteric site of an enzyme, alter its kinetic characteristics. The modulators for allosteric enzymes may be either stimulatory or inhibitory. Many enzymes do not demonstrate hyperbolic saturation kinetics, or typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Graphs of initial velocity vs. substrate demonstrate sigmoidal dependency of v on S, much as we discussed with ...

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Chemical Mechanisms of Enzyme Catalysis

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How does an enzyme accomplish its tremendous enhancement of a reaction’s rate (as much as a billion-fold)? There is an upper limit to the activity of an enzyme: It cannot operate faster than the rate at which it encounters the substrate. In solution, this rate is approximately 108 to 109 times per second (sec-1). In the cell, enzymes acting on ...

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Enzyme Kinetics : Kinetic Study of Enzymatic Reactions

Enzyme Kinetics : Kinetic Study of Enzymatic Reactions

Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are investigated. Studying an enzyme’s kinetics in this way can reveal the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, its role in metabolism, how its activity is controlled, and how ...

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What is Mendelian Law and Mendelism?

Mendelism and mendel lawsMendelism and mendel laws

The contribution of Mendel to genetics is called Mendelism. Mendel is called the Father of Genetics. He was born in a peasant family in 1822 in Austria. In 1843, he entered the monastery at Brunn and in 1847 he was ordained as a Priest. After completing the theological studies, he worked as a substitute teacher in Mathematics and Greek. In ...

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